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Adding Subtotals using GROUPING SETS

November 7, 2010 Leave a comment

I recently had to convert an existing report constructed against SQL Server 2000 to our new SQL Server 2008 dimensional data warehouse.  The output of the report procedure was a single set of aggregated totals by different levels of the date dimension. After reviewing the code for some time, which consisted of several pages of stream of consciousness SQL and the creation of a multitude of temp tables, I arrived at the conclusion that there just had to be a better way. That’s when I stumbled upon a little documented enhancement in SQL Server 2008 called GROUPING SETS.

Using the AdventureWorksDW sample database as a source, the use of GROUPING SETS lets us produce output like below using a single SQL statement.

SubTotalOutput

How is this done? Lets first consider the case where we want to generate an aggregate by month. Using a GROUP BY statement, this result set is produced by the following:

SELECT  ordDate.CalendarYear,

        ordDate.CalendarQuarter,

        ordDate.MonthNumberOfYear,

        ordDate.EnglishMonthName,

        SUM(fact.SalesAmount) AS SalesAmount

FROM    dbo.FactInternetSales fact

INNER   JOIN dbo.DimTime ordDate

        ON   fact.OrderDateKey = ordDate.TimeKey

GROUP BY

        ordDate.CalendarYear,

        ordDate.CalendarQuarter,

        ordDate.MonthNumberOfYear,

        ordDate.EnglishMonthName

 

This statement simply produces a single vector aggregate with CalendarYear, CalendarQuarter, MonthNumberOfYear, and EnglishMonthName as coordinates. I can rewrite this same statement using the new GROUPING SETS function by passing in the same coordinates to a GROUPING SETS statement.
 

SELECT  ordDate.CalendarYear,

        ordDate.CalendarQuarter,

        ordDate.MonthNumberOfYear,

        ordDate.EnglishMonthName,

        SUM(fact.SalesAmount) AS SalesAmount

FROM    dbo.FactInternetSales fact

INNER   JOIN dbo.DimTime ordDate

        ON   fact.OrderDateKey = ordDate.TimeKey

GROUP BY

        GROUPING SETS (

            (

                  ordDate.CalendarYear,

                  ordDate.CalendarQuarter,

                  ordDate.MonthNumberOfYear,

                  ordDate.EnglishMonthName

            )

        )

The two statements produce the same exact output. However, the use of GROUPING SETS lets me specify another vector aggregate,  say just Year and Quarter like below

SELECT  ordDate.CalendarYear,

        ordDate.CalendarQuarter,

        ordDate.MonthNumberOfYear,

        ordDate.EnglishMonthName,

        SUM(fact.SalesAmount) AS SalesAmount

FROM    dbo.FactInternetSales fact

INNER   JOIN dbo.DimTime ordDate

        ON   fact.OrderDateKey = ordDate.TimeKey

GROUP BY

        GROUPING SETS (

            (

                  ordDate.CalendarYear,

                  ordDate.CalendarQuarter,

                  ordDate.MonthNumberOfYear,

                  ordDate.EnglishMonthName

            ),

            (

                  ordDate.CalendarYear,

                  ordDate.CalendarQuarter

            )

      )

This statement produces aggregates at two different levels, Month and Quarter, of the time dimension.

MonthAndQuarterAggregate

To add Yearly totals and GrandTotals, two new tuples are added to the GROUPING SETS function, (ordDate.CalendarYear), () so that the final statement looks like the following.

SELECT  ordDate.CalendarYear,

        ordDate.CalendarQuarter,

        ordDate.MonthNumberOfYear,

        ordDate.EnglishMonthName,

        SUM(fact.SalesAmount) AS SalesAmount

FROM    dbo.FactInternetSales fact

INNER   JOIN dbo.DimTime ordDate

        ON   fact.OrderDateKey = ordDate.TimeKey

GROUP BY

        GROUPING SETS(

            (

                  ordDate.CalendarYear,

                  ordDate.CalendarQuarter,

                  ordDate.MonthNumberOfYear,

                  ordDate.EnglishMonthName

            ),          — Month summary

            (

                  ordDate.CalendarYear,

                  ordDate.CalendarQuarter

            ),          — Quarter summary

            (

                  ordDate.CalendarYear

            ),          — Year summary

            ()          — Grand Totals

      )

Quite beautiful.

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